September 30, 2019

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: What You Should Know

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an inflammation of the female reproductive organs. It usually occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria spreads from your vagina to the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.

It results in scars with fibrous bands that makes a formation between the tissues and the organs. most atimes pelvic inflammatory disease doesn't show any signs or symptoms, since it doesn't show any sign and symptom you might not realize you need urgent treatment. 

It might be only noticed when you develop a problem in conceiving (which is a major complication of PID) and also when you have serious pelvic pain.

Other complications of Pelvic inflammatory disease includes Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, chronic and persistent pelvic pain, scarring that leads to infertility, recurring PID, tubo-ovarian abscess.

Pelvic inflammatory disease occurs as a result of untreated infection such as bacteria Vaginosis, yeast infections etc in the vagina or which spreads to the cervix. 

Most women don't realize that they have Pelvic inflammatory disease until they start experiencing infertility problems. 

A woman who has had Pelvic inflammatory disease has a 20 percent chance of infertility due to scarring of the fallopian tubes and a 9 percent risk of a future ectopic pregnancy. The number of those who have developed chronic pelvic pain are about 18 percent.

Signs & Symptoms

Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause pain which can further lead to infertility. The symptoms do vary from mild to severe, however if left untreated it can lead to serious complications later in the future.

The signs and symptoms of PID may include:

-lower abdominal and pelvic pain


-irregular menstruation

-spotting or bleeding during periods

-back pains


-frequent urination

Studies have shown that PID can sometimes resemble an ovarian cyst, urinary tract infection, appendicitis, endometroisis.

PID can be acute, and may last up to 30 days, or chronic if it lasts more than 30 days. A major difficulty in treating Pelvic inflammatory disease is that the symptoms varies and most atimes it doesn't show any symptoms in some women.

Anyone who experiences these symptoms, needs urgent medical attention and its advised that you see a doctor.


Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by an infection which could be bacterial, fungi, parasitic. And PID usually involves one or more types of bacteria. 

The infection begins in the vagina and spreads to the cervix, it can further move from the Fallopian tubes to the ovaries. The most common cause of PID are, Sexually transmitted bacteria's such as chlamydia followed by gonorrhea.

Risk factors

Factors that increases your chances of developing PID may include :
-An endometrial biopsy

-Childbirth, abortion or miscarriage

-An intrauterine device (IUD)


Which individuals are likely to develop PID?

Women are prone to getting a PID if they:

👉 Douche,

👉 Have several sexual partners 

👉 Do not use a barrier contraceptive.

This likely occurs among women within the age of 15-29.


The physician will ask about symptoms and carry out a pelvic exam to check for tenderness.

They will also test for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A swab may be taken from the cervix (HVS), and maybe from the urethra, the tube from the bladder through which urine flows. Blood and urine tests can be done too.

Having an ultrasound scan would be necessary to check for inflammation in the fallopian tubes. Sometimes, a laparoscope is used to view the area. There might also be a need for tissue samples to be taken through it.


The earlier PID is treated, the better, and it reduces the chances of infertility and other complications involved.

-Treatment with antibiotics: this is the first treatment that should be administered, it is required that you follow the doctors prescription and complete all the doses. The dose usually lasts for two weeks. 

Since PID is caused by more than one bacteria ,then you would have to take the two antibiotics together. If the tests shows which bacteria are causing the disease, more targeted therapy is possible. 

Pelvic inflammatory disease can be treated with antibiotics such as metronidazole, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, doxycycline.

If the symptoms persists even after the medications, it's advised that you go see a doctor, there might be a need to change the medications.

-Hospitalization: This is suitable for women who are pregnant or have severe symptoms. she may need to remain in the hospital. Intravenous medication may be given.

-Surgery: This is rarely needed, except in some cases when the Fallopian tubes have been scarred. The removal of one of the Fallopian tubes might be a solution or either a keyhole surgery. Removing the two Fallopian tubes might result in difficulty in the woman getting pregnant naturally.

The woman's sexual partner may have to hunt treatment for associate STI. If the partner has an STI, there is a serious risk of recurrence, if it goes untreated. its safer for you to refrain from sex until the treatment is completed.


The risk of developing Pelvic inflammatory disease can be minimized in the following ways:

-Avoid douching

-Persons with multiple sexual partners should get themselves tested for STI's and go for regular screening to avoid getting reinfected.

-Practising safe sex (using condoms )

-Try not to have sex too soon after childbirth or a termination or loss of pregnancy, you could resume sex after the cervix has closed properly.

Remember Health Is Wealth 

Written by: Isikadi Precious RN. 

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Founder/CEO Isikadi Precious Media Inc. Africa's leading Media Tech company with digital media Superbrand focused on Health, Nursing Updates, News, Entertainment, and Inspiration.